八年级上英语语法点完整版

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吃苹果。(习惯) She likes to eat an apple.她喜爱吃一粒苹果。( sth),有时意思不尽相同。如 She likes eating apples.她喜爱ike 后可接不定式(like to do sth),也可接动词的-ing分词(like doing的含义。如 Do you like the color你喜爱这种颜色吗 llike 可以作动词,也可以作介词。1、like 作动词,表示一般性的“爱好、喜欢”,有泛指bit kind of, 后接形容词,意为“有点儿”。 20 关于like的用法平常不喜欢吃) like 与 would 连用,后接不定式,表示愿望或客气的请求。如it of, 后接不可数名词; a little a bit a little people like him. 几乎没有人喜欢他。 5. a little a bI have a few Chinese friends. 我有一些中国朋友。 Fewe is little soda in the glass. 杯子里几乎没有汽水了。 a little soda in the glass. 杯子里有一点儿汽水。 Thertle 表否定意义;a few 表肯定意义,few 表否定意义。如 There is a bit of money. 他有一点儿钱。 4. a little 表肯定意义,litold. 有点冷。 a bit of 后接不可数名词。如 He has Would you like a cup of tea您愿意喝杯茶吗 “喜欢某人。 3. a bit 意为“一点儿”,后接形容词。如 Its a bit c There are a few people in the room. 房间里有一些e shy. 他有些害羞。 2. a few 意为“一些、少数”,后接复数的可数名词。如tle. 瓶子里有一点水。 还可以接形容词。如 He is a littl接不可数名词。如 There is a little water in the bot有“一些、少量”的意义。他们的区别在哪里呢 1. a little意为“一些、少量”,后ew 与 a bit of a little, a few 与 a bit of 都人做某事”可以用结构“like sb to do sth/doing sth”。如 Thn in black is a football coach.19 a little, a f John is in white today.约翰今天穿白色的衣服。 The mases in green.那位妇女总是穿绿色的衣服。4、be in 表示穿着的状态。如ess 也可作不及物动词,表示衣着的习惯。如 The woman always dres dress the children right now.请立即给孩子们穿上衣服。 dr作及物动词,有“给......穿衣”的意思,后接“人”,而不是“衣服”。如 Please is wearing a red skirt.那女孩穿着一条红色的短裙。3、dress 可ld man wears a pair of glasses.老人戴着一副眼镜。The girley all like me to sing/singing English songs.他们都喜欢es.你最好穿上你的鞋子。2、wear 主要表示“穿、戴”的状态。如 The ohis coat.他穿上了他的外套。Youd better put on your sho见的有以下这些1、put on 主要表达“穿”的动作。如 He put on erson18 如何表达英语中的“穿、戴”英语中表示“穿、戴”的表达方法有好几种,常 houran unclean umbrellaan honest pl booka universea one-letter wordan母开头的单词前面不一定都用an;以辅音字母开头的单词前面也不一定都用a。如a usefuDo you have an umbrella你有一把雨伞吗3.以元音字我唱英文歌。2、like 作介词,可译成“像......”。如 She is f母i。类似的字母还有a, e, f, h, l, m, n, o, r, s, x。ere is an i in the word onion.单词onion中有个字knife.她有一把小刀。2.an 用于以元音音素开头的单词前。如Thj, k, p, q, t, u, v, w, y, z。She has a small rd book.单词book中有个字母b。类似的字母还有c, d, g, 1.a 用在以辅音音素开头的单词前。如There is a b in the woce in a week.一周内我会去拜访他两次。17 不定冠词a与an的使用riendly to us like a mother.她对我们友好,就像母亲一样。 It him in a week.一周后我会去拜访他。Ill visit him twi.十点后我们会完成工作的。3.注意区分以下的in的用法。Ill visi来时。如We will finish the work after ten oclockek.一周后他动身去了北京。不过,如果after后跟的是具体的时刻,它也可用于将为起点,表示过去一段时间。如He left for Beijing after a wea week.一周后他会动身去北京。2.after 经常用于过去时的句子中,以过去在为起点,表示将来一段时间。如He will leave for Beijing in in 与 after 都可以表示时间,但二者有所区别。1.in 经常用于将来时的句子中,以现t looks like an orange.它看起来像个桔子。 3、区分以下句子 y.I havent been there yet.16 in与after4.already变为yet。如I have been there alread(不可数名词)There isnt much orange in the bottle.riends.There is lots of orange in the bottle.a lot of friends.(可数名词)They dont have many f3.a lot of lots of变为many或much。如They have a ruler.I dont have a knife or a ruler.y等也要进行相应变化。2.and变为or。如I have a knife and A. What does he look like B. What is he e orange juice与此相关的一些不定代词如something, somebod,若在表示请邀请、请求的句子中,some可以不变。如Would you like som tree.There arent any birds in the tree.但是1.some变为any。如There are some birds in theplanplanning 计划15 肯定句变否定句及疑问句要变化的一些词ning开始preferpreferring 宁愿 跑步digdigging挖、掘beginbeginlike A句译为“他长相如何”指一个人的外貌特征;而B句译为“他人怎么样”指人的ng旅游swimswimming游泳runrunning止dropdropping放弃3.traveltravellitriptripping绊stopstopping停ng 临时受雇照顾婴儿2.shopshopping购物放setsetting设置babysitbabysitti坐forgetforgetting忘记putputtinggetgetting取、得到sitsittinghithitting打、撞cutcutting切、割性格特点。 C. The boy like Peter is over there. -ing分词初中阶段常见的有以下这些1.letletting让man teacher---men teachers 14 双写最后一个字母的mouse---miceapple tree---apple treesussians Indian---Indians6.其它。如dians Korean---KoreansRussian---R Australian---AustraliansCanadian---Canaan---FrenchmenAmerican---Americans SwissEnglishman---Englishmen Frenchm D. A boy like Peter cant do it. A句指外貌相似, Japanese---Japanese Swiss---复数变化。即“中日瑞不变英法变,其它国把-s加后面”。如Chinese---Chinese people---people5.表示“某国人”的单、 deer---deerfish---fish ild---children4.单复数同形。如sheep---sheep postman---postmen3.添加词尾。如ch woman---womenpoliceman---policemen 而D句指性格相似。21 stop to do sth 与 stop doing sth2.将-man改为-men。如man---men foot---feet tooth---teeth--beliefsII 名词复数的不规则变化1.将-oo改为--ee。如hiefs proof---proofsbelief-rfs gulf---gulfschief---ccarvesfes roof---roofsserf---se loaf---loaves但是scarf---s wolf---wolvesshelf---shelves 1. stop to do sth 意为“停下来去做某事”。如 The student wife---wiveslife---lives knife---knivesself---selves leaf---leavesthief---thieves -f或-fe变为-v,再加-es。如half---halves country---countries5.以字母-f或-fe结尾的名词,将ictionary---dictionariescity---cities -i,再加-es。如family---families d hero---heroes4.以辅音字母加-y结尾的名词,将-y变为s stop to listen to their teacher. 学生们停下来去听他们 tomato---tomatoesNegro---Negroes 结尾的某些名词,词尾加-es。如potato---potatoes ---watches box---boxes3.以字母-o--classes dish---disheswatchnging.他在唱歌。He has got married.他已结婚。 b. 表示语态,例如He was sent to England.他被派往英国。 c. 构成疑问句,例如Do you like college life你喜欢大学生活吗Did you study English before you came he动词协助主要动词完成以下功用,可以用来 a. 表示时态,例如He is sire你来这儿之前学过英语吗 d. 与否定副词not合用,构成否定句,例如I dont like him. 我不喜欢他。 e. 加强语气,例如Do co他不喜欢英语。(doesnt是助动词,无词义;like是主要动词,有词义)2.助me to the party tomorrow evening. 明天晚上一定来参加晚会。He did know that. 他的确知道那件事。3.最常用的助动词有be, have, do, shall, will, should, would7 forget doi助动词自身没有词义,不可单独使用,例如He doesnt like English.ng/to do与remember doing/to do1.forget to do忘记要去做某事。未做forget doing忘记做过某事。已做The l的词叫助动词(Auxiliary Verb)。被协助的动词称作主要动词(Main Verb)。ight in the office is still on. He forgot to turn it off.办公室的灯还在亮着,它忘记关了。没有做关灯的动作He forgot turning the light off. 他忘记他已经关了灯了。 已做过关灯ty你的日常活动是什么6 什么是助动词1.协助主要动词构成谓语动词词组的动作Dont forget to come tomorrow.别忘了明天来。to come动作未做典型例题---- The light in t她晚饭后在电视上看日常英语。Whats your everyday activihe office is still on.---- Oh,I forgot___. A. turning it off B. turn it off C. to turn it off D. having turned it offShe watches everyday English on TV after dinner.答案C。由the light is still on 可知灯亮着,即关灯的动作没有发生,因此用forget to do sth.而forget doing sth表示灯已经关上了,而自己忘记了这.我决定每天读英语。2. everyday 作定语,译为“日常的”。一事实。此处不符合题意。2.remember to do 记得去做某事 未做remember doing记得做过某事 已做Remember to go to the post office after school.记着放学后去趟邮局。每天710去上学。I decide to read English every dayDont you remember seeing the man before 你不记得以前见过那个人吗8 Its for sb.和 Its of sb.1.for如We go to school at 710 every day.我们 sb. 常用于表示事物的特征特点,表示客观形式的形容词,如easy, hard, difficult, interesting, impossible等 Its very hard for him to study two languages. 对他来说学两门外语是很难的。2. every day 与 everyday1. every day作状语,译为“每一天”。of sb的句型一般用表示人物的性格,品德,表示主观感情或态度的形容词,如good, kind, nice, clever, foolish, right。 Its very nice of句首时,主语、谓语动词要倒装。如Never have I been there.5 you to help me. 你来帮助我,你真是太好了。3.for 与of 的辨别方法用介词后面的代词作主语,用介词前边的形容词作表语,造个句子。如果道理上通顺用of,不通则用for。如 You are nice.通顺,所以应用of。 He is harI rides a bike.有时我步行回家,有时我骑自行车。3.never放在d.人是困难的,不通,因此应用for。9 对两个句子的提问新目标英语在命题中有将对句子划线提问这一题型取消的趋势,现在采取的作法是对一个句子进行自由提问。例如句子The boy in blue has three pens.提问1.Who has three句尾,用来表示强调。如Sometimes I walk home, sometime pens2.Which boy has three pens3.What does the boy in blue have4.How many pens doevery day.我们每天经常在710去上学。c.有些频度副词可放在句首或es the boy in blue have很显然,学生多了更多的回答角度,也体现了考试的灵活性。再如句子He usually goes to the park with his friends at 800 on Sunday.提问1.Who usually gb.放在行为动词前。如We usually go to school at 710 oes to the park with his friends at 800 on Sunday2.Where does he usually go with his friendoften arrives late for school.大卫上学经常迟到。s at 800 on Sunday3.What does he usually do with his friends at 800 on Sunday4.With whom does he usually go to the park at 800 on S频度副词的位置a.放在连系动词、助动词或情态动词后面。如David is unday5.What time does he usually go to the park with his friends on Sunday6.When doeen(常常,经常) sometimes(有时候) never(从不)2.s he usually go to the park with his friends10 so、such与不定冠词的使用1.so与不定冠词a、an连用,结构为“so形容词a/an名词”。如He is so funny a boy.Jim has so 以下这些 always(总是,一直) usually(通常) oftbig a house.2.such与不定冠词a、an连用,结构为“sucha/an形容词名词”。如It is such a nice day.That was srom China哪些图片来自中国4 频度副词的位置1.常见的频度副词有uch an interesting story.11 使用-ing分词的几种情况1.在进行时态中。如He is watching TV in the room.They were dancing at nine oclock last night.2.在ich 后都可以接单、复数名词和不可数名词。如 Which pictures are fthere be结构中。如There is a boy swimming in the river.3.在have fun/problems结构中。如We have fr yellow (有特定的范围)你最喜爱哪一种颜色3. what 与 whun learning English this term.They had problems getting to the top of the mountain.4.在介词后面。如Thanks for helping me.Are you good at Which color do you like best, blue, green oplaying basketball.5.在以下结构中enjoy doing sth乐于做某事finish doing sth完成 What color do you like best (所有颜色)你最喜爱什么颜色做某事feel like doing sth 想要做某事stop doing sth 停止做某事forget doing sth 忘记做过某事go 泛指,所指的事物没有范围的限制;而 Which...是特指,所指的事物有范围的限制。如on doing sth 继续做某事remembeh “继续做某事(与刚才同一件事)”。如 He finishes his homewo是go on to do sth “继续做某事(与刚才一事不同)”和 go on doing strk and goes on to study English.他完成了作业,接着继续去念英语。 students stopped talking. 学生们停止了谈话。 与它们相反的句式老师讲话。 2. stop doing sth 意为“停止做某事”。如 The2.以字母-s, -sh, -ch, -x结尾的名词,词尾加-es。如class-gersdesk---deskstree---trees They went on playing games. 他们继续玩游戏。22 pear---pears hamburger---hambur不规则变化两种。I 名词复数的规则变化1.一般在名词词尾加-s。如l by herself.13 名词的复数构成的几种形式名词复数的构成可分为规则变化和 the US. Their daughter makes her breakfast altell, speak, say 与 talk1. tell 意为“告诉、讲述”,指某人把某一a sales assistant. Our English teacher is from数的时候,谓语动词必须用相应的第三人称单数形式。如The boy wants to be atches---watching---watched---watched当主语为第三人称单---works---working---worked---workedwatch---w件事、一条信息传送给别人或讲述一件事。如 He tells me that he wa。如go---goes---going---went---gone work---bananas(复数)3.动词有原形,第三人称单数形式,-ing分词,过去式,过去分词数名词和复数名词。如man(单数)---men(复数) banana(单数)cher, our classroom, Tom, Marys uncle2.名词有单nts to be a teacher. 他告诉我说他想成为一位教师。 Fatit”代替的。如he, she, itmy friend, his tearself.12 英语中的“单数”1.主语的第三人称单数形式,即可用“he,she,. Their daughter makes her breakfast all by he assistant. Our English teacher is from the USher always tells interesting stories to us. 爸动词必须用相应的第三人称单数形式。如The boy wants to be a sales--watching---watched---watched当主语为第三人称单数的时候,谓语s---working---worked---workedwatch---watches-go---goes---going---went---gone work---work爸总是给我们讲有趣的故事。 tell sb sth 意为“告知某人某事”。如 nas(复数)3.动词有原形,第三人称单数形式,-ing分词,过去式,过去分词。如词。如man(单数)---men(复数) banana(单数)---bana our classroom, Tom, Marys uncle2.名词有单数名词和复数名替的。如he, she, itmy friend, his teacher, He told me something about his past. 他告诉我一些 12 英语中的“单数”1.主语的第三人称单数形式,即可用“he,she,it”代住做某事miss doing sth 错过做某事 忙于做某事cant help doing sth 禁不 练习做某事be busy doing sth 他的往事。 tell sb to do sth 意为“告诉某人去做某事”。如 介意做某事practice doing sth 宁愿做某事mind doing sth 需要做某事prefer doing sth 试图做某事need doing sth David told his son to do the homework. 大卫要他 doing sth 看到/听到/观看某人做某事try doing sthth 发现某人做某事see/hear/watch sbsth 使某人一直做某事find sb doing s sth 喜欢做某事keep sb doing 的儿子去做作业。 2. speak 意为“说话、讲话”,后面主要接语言。如 Hr doing sth 记得做过某事like doingThe boy behind Mary. 玛丽背后的那个男孩。2. What...是特定范围内的某一个人。如---Which is Peter 哪个是皮特 ---r doWhat is your fathers jobWhich 指代的是e can speak English and a little Chinese. 他能讲r 你父亲是干什么的该句相当于 What does your fathe,都可以指人或事物,但是what仅用来询问职业。如 What is your fathe any moment. 她随时都可能来。 31. what 与 which 都是疑问代词by supper time. 我们在晚饭前就能到了。 She should be here英语和一点汉语。 speak to 意为“和.....讲话、谈话”。如 C。should的这一用法是考试中常常出现的考点之一。例如We should arrive r if you feel ill. 如果你感觉不舒服,你最好去看医生。3. 用于表示可能性2. 用于提出意见劝导别人。例如You should go to the doctoou should be here with clean hands. 你应该把手洗干净了再来。 an I speak to Mr Zhang 我能和张先生讲话吗 spea几点1. 用于表示“应该”或“不应该”的概念。此时常指长辈教导或责备晚辈。例如YWe should help each other.我们应当互相帮助。我们在使用时要注意以下 today 你今天为什么来得这么晚should有时表示应当做或发生的事,例如should I know 我怎么知道Why should you be so latek of 意为“提到、说起”。如 The book speaks of my homeshould作为情态动词用,常常表示意外、惊奇、不能理解等,有“竟会”的意思,例如How ijing你为什么要离开上海去北京2 情态动词should“应该”学会使用开某地去某地”。例如Why are you leaving Shanghai for Be London.下周五,爱丽斯要去伦敦了。3.“leave地点for地点”表示“离town. 那本书提到我的家乡。 表示“动身去某地”。例如Next Friday, Alice is leaving foru leave Shanghai你什么时候离开上海的2.“leave for地点” leave的用法1.“leave地点”表示“离开某地”。例如When did yo八年级上英语语法 【灰常完整的哦】1
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